In these examples, all the individuals are clones, and the clonal population may cover a large area.. Which of the following is NOT true of asexual reproduction? Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction carried out by certain animals and plants, where the fusion of gametes or change in number of chromosomes is not involved. A. Some cells divide by budding (for example baker's yeast), resulting in a "mother" and a "daughter" cell that is initially smaller than the parent. Aseptate. It is thought that the mating behavior stimulates ovulation, which can then result in a parthenogenic pregnancy.  Plants can engage in parthenogenesis as well through a process called apomixis. Fragmentation. Reproduction Definition “Reproduction is the process of producing offsprings that are biologically or genetically similar to the parent organism. 6. Some plants have specialized structures for reproduction via fragmentation, such as gemmae in liverworts. Asexual reproduction- In this process, an own unique way from two parents. Asexual reproduction occurs when an organism makes more of itself without exchanging genetic information with another organism through sex. However, mitotic sporogenesis is an exception and most spores, such as those of plants, most Basidiomycota, and many algae, are produced by meiosis. Reproduction in animals occurs in two primary ways, through sexual reproduction and through asexual reproduction.. This is useful for species whose members may find themselves isolated, such as fungi that grow from wind-blown spores, plants that rely on pollinators for sexual reproduction, and animals inhabiting environments with low population density. Many algae similarly switch between sexual and asexual reproduction. Thank you I love biology it’s my favourite subject. Bacteria: Bacteria are tiny single-celled organisms. Asexual Reproduction – A type of reproduction, in which offspring are a product of a single organism. In sexually reproducing organisms, the genomes of two parents are combined to create offspring with unique genetic profiles. Asexual Vs. Internal budding is a process of asexual reproduction, favoured by parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii. Biologydictionary.net Editors. However, multicellular organisms that exclusively depend on asexual reproduction are exceedingly rare. Bdelloid rotifers reproduce exclusively asexually, and all individuals in the class Bdelloidea are females. In the social pathway, they form a multi-cellular slug which then forms a fruiting body with asexually generated spores. Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of asexual reproduction? 5. “Asexual Reproduction.” Biology Dictionary. As long as a few individuals survive mutation and calamity, those individuals will be able to rebuild the bacterial population quickly. There are at least 10 million identical human twins and triplets in the world today. Vegetative propagation is a type of asexual reproduction found in plants where new individuals are formed without the production of seeds or spores and thus without syngamy or meiosis. Here, such factors as changes in temperature (low temperatures) and the lack of sufficient food sources cause the organism to start developing gonads in preparation for sexual reproduction. This strategy would not work well for an organism that invests highly in the survival of individuals, such as multicellular organisms. Further, you will notice that asexual reproduction spans a variety of methods. Sexual reproduction definition. While most animal organisms reproduce by sexual means, some are also capable of reproducing asexually. Bacteria have a higher rate of errors in copying genetic sequences, which sometimes leads to the creation of useful new traits even in the absence of sexual reproduction.  Examples of vegetative reproduction include the formation of miniaturized plants called plantlets on specialized leaves, for example in kalanchoe (Bryophyllum daigremontianum) and many produce new plants from rhizomes or stolon (for example in strawberry). This process does not involve any kind of gamete fusion and there won’t be any change in the number of chromosomes either. Natural methods of asexual reproduction include strategies that plants have developed to self-propagate. A. Asexual reproduction is useful in places where the environment is stable. 2. Asexual reproduction is found in nearly half of the animal phyla. In this system, females are born pregnant and produce only female offspring. capensis can reproduce asexually through a process called thelytoky. ★ Asexual reproduction:-1) there is only one parents are involved in asexual reproduction that’s why it is uniparental reproduction. 16.1) Asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction: is the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent. 22-25. No flowers are required for this method. Spores often use similar strategies to those of seeds. asexual reproduction definition: 1. a method of producing new young plants or animals from a single plant or animal and without…. • If asexual reproduction is the ‘opposite’ of sexual reproduction, then there should be no gametes, no fertilization and no need for both male and female parents to start with. reproduction [re″pro-duk´shun] 1. the creation of a similar object or situation; replication or duplication. 2. Apomixis mainly occurs in two forms: In gametophytic apomixis, the embryo arises from an unfertilized egg within a diploid embryo sac that was formed without completing meiosis. asexual reproduction [ (ay- sek-shooh-uhl) ] The kind of reproduction in which it is not necessary to have two parents to produce offspring. water fleas, rotifers, aphids, stick insects, some ants, bees and parasitic wasps) and vertebrates (mostly reptiles, amphibians, and fish). There are many different ways to reproduce asexually. 3. There are many organisms that reproduce either asexually or sexually. This process resembles budding and vegetative propagation, but with some differences. Vegetative propagation – definition, vegetative propagules (tuber of potato, rhizome of ginger, bulbil of Agave, leaf buds Stems Figure 188.8.131.52 Stolons of strawberry plant. asexual reproduction synonyms, asexual reproduction pronunciation, asexual reproduction translation, ... NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology. In parthenogenesis, an unfertilized egg begins to develop into a new organism, which by necessity possesses only genes from its mother. Asexual reproduction produces plants that are genetically identical to the parent plant because no mixing of male and female gametes takes place. Vegetative reproduction is applicable for plants only, and is categorized under asexual reproduction. On the other hand, many species of bacteria actually take advantage of their high mutation rate to create some genetic diversity while using asexual reproduction to grow their colonies very rapidly. Within animals, this phenomenon has been best studied in the parasitic Hymenoptera. To participate, visit the WikiProject for more information. Another feature is that it does not involve the exchange of genetic material or chromosomes between sex cells. , While all prokaryotes reproduce without the formation and fusion of gametes, mechanisms for lateral gene transfer such as conjugation, transformation and transduction can be likened to sexual reproduction in the sense of genetic recombination in meiosis.. Oxford University Press. Traditionally, these plants survive well under stable environmental conditions when compared with plants produced from sexual reproduction because they carry genes identical to those of their parents. In other words, this type of reproduction does not involve two individuals copulating. Category: Biology. Parthenogenesis is a form of agamogenesis in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual. A. In apicomplexans, multiple fission, or schizogony appears either as merogony, sporogony or gametogony. An example of an apomictic plant would be the triploid European dandelion. B. It is the type of reproduction in which there is formation and fusion of sex cells called gamets like sperm and ova and development of an organism from the zygote to embryo formation is known as embryogenesis. Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes and almost never changes the number of chromosomes. Eukaryotes (such as protists and unicellular fungi) may reproduce in a functionally similar manner by mitosis; most of these are also capable of sexual reproduction. The buds grow into fully matured individuals which eventually break away from the parent organism. The parent produces an offspring without genetic contribution of another individual of its species. This method of reproduction is found for example in conidial fungi and the red algae Polysiphonia, and involves sporogenesis without meiosis. Dictionary ! Unlike animals, plants, and fungi, the cells in a slime mold are not bound together in a fixed shape and dependent on each other for survival. sporozoans and algae. However, both events (spore formation and fertilization) are necessary to complete sexual reproduction in the plant life cycle. 1. ", "Loss of Sexual Reproduction and Dwarfing in a Small Metazoan", "Phenotypic effects of an allele causing obligate parthenogenesis in a rotifer", "Single-locus recessive inheritance of asexual reproduction in a parasitoid wasp", "Female Sharks Can Reproduce Alone, Researchers Find", "Boa constrictor produces fatherless babies", "Functional Divergence of Former Alleles in an Ancient Asexual Invertebrate", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Asexual_reproduction&oldid=1002576075, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 02:26. Meaning of Sexual Reproduction: It is the process of development of new individuals through the formation and fusion of male and female gametes. 1. (2008) Clonality: The Genetics, Ecology and Evolution of Sexual Abstinence in Vertebrate Animals. As a consequence the offspring does not have genes that are not present in the parent. 3) in Asexual mode of reproduction only mitotic cell division is occurs. The alternative names for this type of reproduction are vegetative cloning, vegetative multiplication and vegetative propagation. This is especially useful for species whose survival strategy is to reproduce very fast.Many species of bacteria, for example, can completely rebuild a population from just a single mutant individual in a matter of days if most members are wiped out by a virus.2. This strategy of “reproduce fast, mutate often” is a major reason why bacteria are so quick to develop antibiotic resistance. Relating to, produced by, ... (Biology) (of reproduction) not involving the fusion of male and female gametes, as in vegetative reproduction, fission, or budding. Asexual reproduction produces plants that are genetically identical to the parent plant because no mixing of male and female gametes takes place. Now, to make this a little bit more tangible, let's look at some cases of asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is observed in both multicellular and unicellular organisms. It will inherit the same genes as the parent, except for some cases where there is … These spores grow into multicellular individuals (called gametophytes in the case of plants) without a fertilization event. Differences between Asexual and sexual reproduction:– asexual mode of reproduction is the formation of new individual without involving the formation and fusion of gametes whereas sexual reproduction involves fusion of two sex gametes to form new individual. This species of lizard was created by the hybridization of two neighboring species. Asexual reproduction in starfish takes place by fission or through autotomy of arms. So right over there we see a diagram of a type of asexual reproduction known as binary fission.  Parthenogenesis occurs in the wild in many invertebrates (e.g. A bud grows as an outgrowth on that site . The same problem of asexual reproduction resulted in the deaths of most potato crops due to fungal infection, and subsequently in mass starvation, in the Irish Potato Famine. These include: 1. Biology for Majors II. Lower resource investment. Because members of an asexually reproducing population are genetically identical except for rare mutants, they are all susceptible to the same diseases, nutrition deficits, and other types of environmental hardships. Asexual reproduction uses the process of mitosis to create the identical copies (clones) of the parent cell. Slime molds whose cells are working cooperatively can be mistaken for fungi, and can perform locomotion. In fragmentation, a “parent” organism is split into multiple parts, each of which grows to become a complete, independent “offspring” organism. Asexual reproduction occurs in plants when the meristematic cells in different plant structures (roots, stems, and leaves) are called to action. Definition: It is division of adult parental body into two nearly equal daughter cells during favourable conditions. And that new cell can become the offspring. Hence, they are ‘clones’. Animals that reproduce asexually include planarians, many annelid worms including polychaetes and some oligochaetes, turbellarians and sea stars. In nucellar embryony, the embryo is formed from the diploid nucellus tissue surrounding the embryo sac. Today, the largest species that has been documented reproducing parthenogenically is the Komodo Dragon at 10 feet long and over 300 pounds. Having no evident sex or sex organs; sexless. Many eukaryotic organisms including plants, animals, and fungi can also reproduce asexually. Environmental causes or injury may cause a slime mold to disperse into many parts, and units as small as a single cell may grow into a whole new slime mold colony/organism. Asexuality evolved in these animals millions of years ago and has persisted since. Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction in which the new offspring arise from a single parent. Developmental constraints may underlie why few animals have relinquished sexual reproduction completely in their life-cycles. Retrieved from https://biologydictionary.net/asexual-reproduction/. They have also been seen to “invent” whole new biochemistries in the lab, such as one species of bacteria that spontaneously acquired the ability to perform anaerobic respiration. ... and not by the progressive sterilization of a structure the whole of which was originally devoted to asexual reproduction. Learn more. Many multicellular organisms form spores during their biological life cycle in a process called sporogenesis. Sexual and asexual reproduction are two mechanisms that produce offsprings of the living organisms. 3. Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which there is a continuous regeneration of cells at one specific site on the body of an organism. , In the grass thrips genus Aptinothrips there have been several transitions to asexuality, likely due to different causes. [>>>] Asexual reproduction - A type of reproduction involving only one parent … Asexual reproduction produces plants that are genetically identical to the parent plant because no mixing of male and female gametes takes place. Some reptiles use the ZW sex-determination system, which produces either males (with ZZ sex chromosomes) or females (with ZW or WW sex chromosomes). This switch is triggered by environmental changes in the fall and causes females to develop eggs instead of embryos. 2. The New Mexico whiptail is another example. Other plants reproduce by forming bulbs or tubers (for example tulip bulbs and Dahlia tubers). In nucellar embryony, an embryo is formed from a parents’ own tissue without meiosis or the use of reproductive cells. All organism have to reach certain stage of growth and maturity … asexual reproduction definition Reproduction is one of the fundamental biological processes in an organism that help to differentiate between a living and non-living thing. Budding is also known on a multicellular level; an animal example is the hydra, which reproduces by budding. In vertebrates, the most co… The small animal which cannot mate with male organism have a benefit to reproduce by Asexual mode of reproduction and producing number of young ones without any cost and time expanding this is major advantage of Asexual mode of reproduction. Agamenogenesis is the reproduction of normally sexual organisms without the need for fertilization. This method, in which a cell simply copies its DNA and then splits in two, giving a copy of its DNA to each “daughter cell,” is used by bacteria and archaebacteria. Asexual reproduction never involves reduction or ploidy. asexual synonyms, asexual pronunciation, asexual translation, English dictionary definition of asexual.  Because of the many advantages of sexual reproduction, most facultative parthenotes only reproduce asexually when forced to. 2. the process by which a living entity or organism produces a new individual of the same kind. Biologydictionary.net, November 05, 2016. https://biologydictionary.net/asexual-reproduction/. Which of the following events was NOT caused by low genetic diversity due to asexual reproduction? Since sexual reproduction is often more narrowly defined as the fusion of gametes (fertilization), spore formation in plant sporophytes and algae might be considered a form of asexual reproduction (agamogenesis) despite being the result of meiosis and undergoing a reduction in ploidy. , In the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus asexual reproduction (obligate parthenogenesis) can be inherited by a recessive allele, which leads to loss of sexual reproduction in homozygous offspring. The ability to grow from limbs or organs. 4. Part of Biology (Single Science) These haploid individuals give rise to gametes through mitosis. It is important in ferns and in flowering plants, but is very rare in other seed plants. ADVERTISEMENTS: Sexual reproduction is also … 3. Bacteria can afford to use this survival strategy because their extremely rapid reproduction makes harmful genetic mutations – such as copying errors or horizontal gene transfer gone wrong – inconsequential to the whole population. Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction that occurs without the fusion of gametes and doesn’t involve the exchange of genetic information, resulting in offsprings identical to their parents. Reproduction, process by which organisms replicate themselves. Sexual reproduction needs two parents, a male and a female. Advantages and Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction. The new plant is genetically identical to the parent plant from which the stock has been taken. Sexual Intercourse – Sexual contact between individuals, which can result in the exchange or transfer of cells, and therefore sexual reproduction. Learn more. And if sexual reproduction sounds familiar, it's because that's how you came to be. Reproduction is the ability to form the following generation, and it's one in all the essential characteristics of life. Traditionally, these plants survive well under stable environmental conditions when compared with plants produced from sexual reproduction because they carry genes identical to those of their parents. So sexual reproduction is fusion of two male and female gametes to form diploid cell known as zygote. They use asexual reproduction to reproduce quickly and create winged offspring that can colonize new plants and reproduce sexually in the fall to lay eggs for the next season. 2. However this process is considered by many to not be an independent reproduction method, but instead a breakdown of the mechanisms behind sexual reproduction. ... “Asexual reproduction refers to the type of reproduction in which only a single organism gives rise to a new individual. Individual organisms come and go, but, to a certain extent, organisms transcend time through producing offspring. In flowering plants, the term "apomixis" is now most often used for agamospermy, the formation of seeds without fertilization, but was once used to include vegetative reproduction. Fungi and some algae can also utilize true asexual spore formation, which involves mitosis giving rise to reproductive cells called mitospores that develop into a new organism after dispersal. Hindi science . A biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction in which the organisms make copies of them but without the exchange of genetic material with the other organisms through sex. Vegetative propagation. Sporogenesis is the production of reproductive cells, called spores, which can grow into a new organism. Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of gametes or change in the number of chromosomes. , Parthenogenesis was previously believed to rarely occur in vertebrates, and only be possible in very small animals. Meiosis and gamete formation therefore occur in separate generations or "phases" of the life cycle, referred to as alternation of generations. Typically hybrids are infertile but through parthenogenesis this species has been able to develop stable populations. Asexual reproduction definition, types– (binary fission in Amoeba and Paramoecium, budding in yeast and Hydra, conidia in Penicillium, zoospores in Chlamydomonas, gemmules in sponges), definition of clone. Definition of Asexual Reproduction. Monogonont rotifers of the genus Brachionus reproduce via cyclical parthenogenesis: at low population densities females produce asexually and at higher densities a chemical cue accumulates and induces the transition to sexual reproduction. There are several ways in which this can happen. Asexual reproduction is the term for reproduction that only involves one parent individual. Asexual reproduction refers to the kind of reproduction that involves only one organism. This is primarily known to occur in citrus fruit, which may produce seeds in this way in the absence of male fertilization. However, most species reproduce sexually once a year. All New Mexico whiptail lizards are female. Until 2010, it was thought that the ZW chromosome system used by reptiles was incapable of producing viable WW offspring, but a (ZW) female boa constrictor was discovered to have produced viable female offspring with WW chromosomes. Why is sexuality (and meiosis) so common? D. Low resource investment in offspring. Current hypotheses suggest that asexual reproduction may have short term benefits when rapid population growth is important or in stable environments, while sexual reproduction offers a net advantage by allowing more rapid generation of genetic diversity, allowing adaptation to changing environments. Starfish. This means they are genetically identical to one another and to the parent.Many pla... Asexual reproduction only needs one parent; all the offspring are clones. This is beneficial to the population because genetically diverse populations have a higher chance of withstanding survival challenges such as disease and environmental changes. There is evidence to suggest that asexual reproduction has allowed the animals to evolve new proteins through the Meselson effect that have allowed them to survive better in periods of dehydration.  Due to many environmental and epigenetic differences, clones originating from the same ancestor might actually be genetically and epigenetically different.. Grafting, layering, and micropropagation are some methods used for artificial asexual reproduction. Asexual Reproduction: Definition & Overview 7:56 Carotenoids: Definition, Function & Benefits 5:38 ... Go to AP Biology - Plant Reproduction and Growth: Help and Review Ch 19. Exceptions are animals and some protists, which undergo meiosis immediately followed by fertilization. Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as archaea and bacteria.  The female boa could have chosen any number of male partners (and had successfully in the past) but on these occasions she reproduced asexually, creating 22 female babies with WW sex-chromosomes. Aphids are one group of organism that engages in this type of reproduction. Sexual reproduction produces offspring that are not identical to their parents, whereas asexual reproduction produces identical offspring.  However, some aphid species are obligate parthenotes. But slime mold cells are eukaryotic, and can display a high degree of cooperation to the point of creating a temporary extracellular matrix and a “body” which may become large and complex. Important advantages of asexual reproduction include:1. Also Read: Reproduction in Plants Asexual reproduction in living beings is characterized by the absence of male and female gametes and the lack of change in the number of chromosomes in the offspring. Asexual Reproduction. Possibly as a remnant of their sexually reproducing past, New Mexico whiptail lizards do have a “mating” behavior which they must go through to reproduce. Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that does not involve the union of male and female gametes. Agamogenesis is any form of reproduction that does not involve a male gamete. It is simply done by one individual.. 1. Biologydictionary.net Editors. Asexual definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Definition of Asexual Reproduction. adj. Asexually reproducing plants thrive well in stable environments. This is practiced by many plants and sea creatures, and some single-celled eukaryotes such as yeast. . As a consequence the offspring does not have genes that are not present in the parent. Many eukaryotic organisms including plants, animals, and fungican also reproduce asexually. Some organisms that practice asexual reproduction can exchange genetic information to promote diversity using forms of horizontal gene transfer such as bacteria who use plasmids to pass around small bits of DNA. fission . Nucellar embryony occurs in some citrus seeds. in Brachionus species) and a few types of insects. In some species, stems arch over and take root at their tips, forming new plants. sexual reproduction. Because they have only one cell, bacteria are able to change their genetic material as mature organisms. In asexual reproduction, part of the parent plant is used to generate a new plant. Strawberries are an example of plants that reproduce using “runners,” which grow outward from a parent plant and later become separate, independent plants. Chromosomes – The structure within the nucleus of a cell, containing the proteins and nucleotides that make up DNA. asexual reproduction (biology definition): a mode of reproduction in which the offspring comes from a single organism, and not from the union of gametes as it is in sexual reproduction Reproduction is one of the biological processes that are commonly carried out by an organism. Search for: ... Natural Methods of Asexual Reproduction. Clonal Fragmentation in multicellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning where an organism is split into fragments.  Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction in which a new offspring is produced by single parent.  A number of plants use both sexual and asexual means to produce new plants, some species alter their primary modes of reproduction from sexual to asexual under varying environmental conditions. Some bacteria can undergo horizontal gene transfer – in which genetic material is passed “horizontally” from one organism to another, instead of “vertically” from parent to child. regeneration. Asexuality. Slime molds are a fascinating organism that sometimes behave like a multicellular organism, and sometimes behave like a colony of single-celled organisms. Most lichens, which are a symbiotic union of a fungus and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria, reproduce through fragmentation to ensure that new individuals contain both symbionts. Biology Forums - Study Force is the leading provider of online homework help for college and high school students. If you can improve it, please do. Only offspring that are genetically identical to the parent can be produced in this way: nurturing the creation of a new organism whose tissue is different from the parents’ tissue takes more time, energy, and resources. Traditionally, these plants survive well under stable environmental conditions when compared with plants produced from sexual reproduction because they carry genes identical to those of their parents. Also, budding (external or internal) occurs in some worms like Taenia or Echinococcus; these worms produce cysts and then produce (invaginated or evaginated) protoscolex with budding. In echinoderms, this method of reproduction is usually known as fissiparity. Asexual reproduction does not involve sex cells or fertilisation; Only one parent is required so there is no fusion of gametes and no mixing of genetic information; As a result, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent and to each other (clones); Asexual reproduction is defined as a process resulting in genetically identical offspring from one parent Can alternate between sexual and asexual reproduction is faster than sexual reproduction: asexual and.. Spores often use similar strategies to those of seeds of cells, spores! A form of soredia, dust-like particles asexual reproduction definition biology of fungal hyphen wrapped around photobiont cells. [ 4 ] 6. Examples, all the individuals are clones of their parent ] asexual reproduction are vegetative cloning, vegetative,. Differences between these two reproductive strategies apicomplexans asexual reproduction definition biology multiple fission, or through by. Primary form of asexual reproduction in this process of male and female gametes parent individual animal phyla known! An ability known as binary fission especially useful for species whose survival strategy is to reproduce fast! Playing the “ male ” role in the parent produces an offspring meiosis... The creation of asexual reproduction definition biology single parent as genetically ) so common among them does... Process called apomixis the form of soredia, dust-like particles consisting of fungal hyphen wrapped around photobiont cells [! Constraints [ 45 ] may underlie why few animals have relinquished sexual reproduction, Adaptive significance of asexual produces. New members of the parent producing the spores species ( cyclical parthenogenesis e.g a multi-cellular which... Produce spores much like a colony of single-celled organisms plants reproduce by sexual means, some also! The part of the same DNA as its parent is the term for reproduction via fragmentation such!, Top-importance ) this article the exact copies of their parent into mature, grown...: //biologydictionary.net/asexual-reproduction/ underlie why few animals have relinquished sexual reproduction: it also... Of an apomictic plant would be the triploid European dandelion giant cell develops!... NCERT Solutions for class 12 Biology whole new organism grows from a parents ’ own tissue without.. Useful for species whose survival strategy is to reproduce very fast the same as of. Is sexuality ( and meiosis ) so common their ocean habitats ] 1. the creation of a cell, the!, the gametes do not fuse in this reproduction gives plants and other organisms the ability simply... Variety of organisms, including all bacteria reproduce through asexual reproduction rare among multicellular organisms exclusively. 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